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Gender and Sexuality
October 25, Retrieved June 28, Gore Vidal. Frederick Ungar Publishing, Inc. Archived from the original on January 14, October 16, Another important intersectional factor to consider in relation to gender and marriage is marriage markets. Analyzing marriage markets as they pertain to marriage has several benefits. First, marriage market conditions are forces that influence marriage from outside they subjects affect, which means they impact the general trends of marriage decisions. In addition, Job stability benefits both employers through greater productivity and families though more cohesion.
Second, marriage market conditions may capture many economic influences. In weak marriage markets when there is high unemployment couples who would like to get married may delay doing so due to unemployment or financial troubles. Furthermore, even couples that are already married may face doubts about the future economic status of themselves or their partners, which can create marital instability.
Conversely, strong labor markets when unemployment is low may improve the employment situation and financial situation of either partner, which may facilitate marriage and increase economic stability.
Gender and Sexuality | Perspectives: An Open Invitation to Cultural Anthropology
Social class interacts with gender to impact the male-female dynamic in marriage, particularly with respect to "temporal flexibility at work and home". Conversely, men and women who do not have access to such flexibility and control of their time are pressured to weaken conventional gender expectations regarding marriage, family, and jobs.
Gertsel and Clawson conducted a study in which they collected data from four groups of paid care workers, divided by class and gender The nurses were almost exclusively women and the doctors were almost exclusively men. This group had a number of choices about work hours and their ability to utilize family-friendly workplace policies. The class-disadvantaged group had fewer choices regarding their work hours and faced greater constraints in flexibility and control of their time.
Women in particular need flexible work hours in order to meet the inflexible demands that marriage and a family place upon them, as traditional gender expectations stipulate that the woman be the primary caregiver. Furthermore, gender shapes the particular variety of flexibility demanded.
In advantaged occupations, both men and women are able to acquire the flexibility they so desire. However, they choose to use the control that this affords them in different manners. Women cut back on paid work hours and take leaves to handle domestic labor and child-care. In other words, they make job sacrifices. On the other hand, men are less likely to utilize family-friendly policies to make work sacrifices; they spend less at home and more time working.
In essence, both men and women of class-advantaged occupations use the flexibility that their status provides them to "enact neotraditional gender expectations". Class-disadvantaged men and women do not have the same temporal flexibility that allows them to make decisions on how to allocate their time. They face stricter constraints on their work hours and policies, thus making it impossible for them to choose whether to spend more time at work or more time at home. For example, even if a class-disadvantaged woman wanted to spend less time at work and more time with her children or in the home, she might not be able due to the inability to get time off from work or take a leave of absence.
Thus, class-disadvantage makes it more difficult for both men and women to adhere to traditional gender expectations. The researchers showed that class advantage is used to "do gender" in traditional ways, while class disadvantage may lead to a violation of traditional gender expectations in a way that "undoes gender".
Research indicates that three principal factors predict how well men and women perceive their work-life balance in marriage: job characteristics, family characteristics, and spillover between work and family.
As demonstrated by Gertsel and Clawson, higher-level occupations are generally more accommodating to family life than are lower level occupations Keene and Quadagno found a greater likelihood of perceived imbalance when work duties caused men or women to miss a family event or make it difficult to maintain their home Additional research by Keene and Quadagno suggests that the gender expectations that men should prioritize their work lives and women should prioritize their marriage and home life no longer exist.
One theoretical approach to explain this concept is the "gender similarity" approach, which "predicts that the convergence in men's and women's work and family demands should lead to a convergence in attitudes toward work and family responsibilities and feelings of work-family balance". Some research supports the convergence of men's and women's work experiences: both men and women make adjustments in their marriage and personal lives to meet their employer's expectations, while also making adjustments at work to maintain their marital and family obligations.